He succeeded his great-grandfather Louis XIV at the age of five. Cardinal Fleury was his chief minister from until the Cardinal's death inat which time the young king took sole control of the kingdom. His reign of almost 59 years from — was the second longest in the history of France, exceeded only by his predecessor and great-grandfather, Louis XIV who ruled for 72 years from — Historians generally give his reign very low marks, especially as wars drained the treasury and set the stage for the governmental collapse and French Revolution in the s.
He was born in the Palace of Versailles on 15 February When he was born, he was named the Duke of Anjou. The possibility of his becoming King seemed very remote; the King's oldest son and heir, Louis Le Grand DauphinLouis's father and his elder surviving brother were ahead of him in the succession.
However, the Grand Dauphin died of smallpox on 14 April On 7 March, it was found that both Louis and his older brother, the former Duke of Brittany, had the measles. The two brothers were treated in the traditional way, with bleeding. On the night of 8—9 March, the new Dauphin died from the combination of the disease and the treatment. The governess of Louis, Madame de Ventadour, would not allow the doctors to bleed Louis further; he was very ill but survived.
The Ordinance of Vincennes from required that the kingdom be governed by a regent until Laura maurice st louis married dating reached the age of thirteen. The title of Regent was given to his nearest relative, his cousin Philippe, the Duke of Orleans. Louis XIV, Laura maurice st louis married dating, distrusted Philippe, who was a renowned soldier, but was regarded by the King as an atheist and libertine.
The King referred privately to Philippe as a Fanfaron des crimes "braggart of crimes". In Augustshortly before his own death, the King rewrote his will to restrict the powers of the regent; it stipulated that the nation was to be governed by a Regency Council made up of fourteen members until the new "Laura maurice st louis married dating" reached the age of thirteen. Philippe was nephew of Louis XIV, was named president of the council, but other members included the Duke of Maine and his allies.
Decisions were to be made by majority vote, meaning that the Regent could be outvoted by Maine's party. The
Laura maurice st louis married dating de remontrance would impair the monarchy's functioning and marked the beginning of a conflict between the Parlement and King which eventually led to the French Revolution in On 9 Septemberthe Regent had the young King transported away from the court in Versailles to Paris, where the Regent had his own residence in the Palais Royal.
On 12 September, he performed his first official act, opening the first lit de justice of his reign at the Palais Royal. Villeroy instructed the young King in court etiquette, taught him how to review a regiment, and how to receive royal visitors.
Louis also learned the skills of horseback riding and hunting, which became the great passion of the young King. The King charmed the visiting Russian Tsar by identifying the major rivers, cities and geographic features of Russia.
Beginning in he attended the regular meetings of the Regency Council. One economic crisis disrupted the Regency; the Scottish economist and banker John Law was named controller-general of finances. It was mostly funded by the government, and was one of the earliest banks to issue paper money, which he promised could be exchanged for gold.
The stock of the company first soared and then collapsed intaking the bank with it. Law fled France, and wealthy Parisians became reluctant make further investments or to trust any currency but gold. Spain was defeated on both land and sea, and quickly sought peace. A French-Spanish treaty was signed on 27 March The marriage contract was signed on 25 November, and the future bride came to France and took up residence in the Louvre.
However, the Regent decided she was too young Laura maurice st louis married dating have children soon enough, and she was sent back to Spain. On 15 Juneas Louis approached his thirteenth birthday, the year of his majority, he left Paris and moved back to Versailles, where he had happy memories of his childhood, but where he was far from the reach of public opinion.
In the beginning of Louis's reign, the Duke of Orleans continued to manage the government, and took the title of Prime Minister in Augustbut while visiting his mistress, far from the court and medical care, Orleans died in December of the same year. One of the first priorities of the Duke of Bourbon was to find a bride for the King, to assure the continuity of the monarchy, and especially to prevent the succession to the throne of the Orleans branch of the family, the rivals of his branch.
The marriage was celebrated in September when the king was Between andshe gave the king ten children, eight girls and two boys, of whom one survived: The birth of a long-awaited heir, which ensured the survival of the dynasty for the first time sincewas welcomed with celebration in all spheres of French society.
The queen was pious and timid, and spent most of her time secluded with her own courtiers. She was a musician, read extensively, and played social games with her courtiers. After she did not share her bed with the King.
She was deeply upset by the death of her son the Dauphin inand "Laura maurice st louis married dating" on 24 June. One of the first serious conflicts that disturbed the early reign of Louis XV was a battle within the Catholic Church over a Papal Bull called Unigenitus. It was a fierce condemnation of Jansenisma Catholic doctrine based largely on the teachings of Saint Augustine. The faculty of the Sorbonne, then primarily a theological college and a center of Jansenism, demanded clarification from the government.
The Jansenists were allied with the Gallicans, theologians who wanted the Catholic Church Laura maurice st louis married dating France to be distinctly French. The opposition to Unigenitus was particularly strong among the members of the Parlement de Paristhe assembly of the nobles. Despite the protests, on 24 March Cardinal Fleury persuaded the King to issue a decree that Unigenitus was the law of France as well as that of the Church.
The government and church imposed repressive measures. The Parlement was strictly forbidden to discuss religious questions, preventing them from opposing the Unigenitus bull.
Priests who did not accept Unigenitus were denied the authority to administer last rites to the dying. Jansenists and Protestants were threatened with prison and banishment. The Duke's rigid and cold personality did not appeal to the young King, who turned to his old tutor for advice on how to run the affairs of state. When the King insisted that de Fleury was to be included in all meetings between himself and the Duke of Bourbon, the Duke was infuriated and began to undermine de Fleury's position at court.
When the King became aware of the Duke's intrigue, he abruptly dismissed him and replaced him with de Fleury. From until his death inFleury effectively ruled France with the king's assent. Fleury dictated the choices to be made, and encouraged the king's indecision and flattered his pride. He forbade the king to discuss politics with the Queen.
In order to save on court expenses, he sent the youngest four daughters of the king to be educated at the Abbey of Fontevrault. On the surface it was the most peaceful and prosperous period of the reign of Louis XV, but it was built upon a growing volcano of opposition, particularly from the noble members of the Parlements, who saw their privileges and power reduced. Fleury made the Papal doctrine Unigenitus part of French law and forbade any debate in Parlement, which caused Laura maurice st louis married dating silent opposition to grow.
He also downplayed the importance of the French Navy, which would prove be a fatal mistake in future conflicts.
Fleury showed the King the virtues of a stable government; he kept the same Minister of War, Bauyn d'Angervilliers, and controller of the currency, Philibert Orryfor twelve years, and his minister of foreign affairs, Germain Louis Chauvelinfor ten years.
His minister of the Navy and household of the King, the Conte de Maurepas, was in office the entire period. In all he had just thirteen ministers over "Laura maurice st louis married dating" course of nineteen years, while the King, in his last thirty-one years, employed forty-three.
Louis's Controller-General of Finances Michel Robert Le Peletier des Forts —stabilized the French currency, though he was expelled for enriching himself in His successor, Philibert Orrysubstantially reduced the debt caused Laura maurice st louis married dating the War of the Spanish Succession, and simplified and made more fair the tax system, though he still had to depend upon the unpopular dixiemeor tax of the tenth of the revenue of every citizen.
Orry managed, in the last two years of Fleury's government, to balance the royal budget, an accomplishment never again repeated during the rest of the reign.
Fleury's government expanded commerce, both within France and with the rest of the world. Transportation and shipping were improved with the completion of the Saint-Quentin canal linking the Oise and Somme rivers inwhich was later extended to the Escaut River and the Low Countriesand the systematic building of a national road network. By the middle of the 18th century, France had the most modern and extensive road network in the world.
The Government continued its policy of religious repression, aimed at the Jansenists and the so-called "Gallicans" in Parlements of nobles.
After the dismissal of members of provincial parlements for opposing the official government and papal doctrine of Unigenitusthe Parlement of Paris had to register the Unigenitus papal bull and was forbidden to hear religious cases in the future.
In the first years of his governance, Fleury and his foreign minister Germain Louis Chauvelin sought to maintain the peace by maintaining the French alliance with England, despite their long history of antagonism and their colonial rivalry in North America and the West Indies. They also rebuilt the alliance with Spain, which had been shaken by the anger of the Spanish King when Louis refused to marry the Spanish infanta. The birth of the king's male heir in dispelled the risks of a succession crisis in France.
However, new powers were emerging on the European stage, particularly Russia under Peter the Great and his successor, Catherine I of Russia. A new coalition against France began to assemble in eastern Europe, Laura maurice st louis married dating by a defensive treaty signed on 6 August between Prussia, Russia and Austria.
In the coalition came into direct conflict with France over the succession to the Polish throne. The death of Augustus on 1 Februarywith two heirs claiming the throne, launched the War of the Polish Succession. The Tsarina of Russia immediately marched her regiments into Poland to support her candidate. Cardinal Fleury responded with a carefully-orchestrated campaign of diplomacy.
He first won assurances from Britain and that they would not interfere in the war, while lining up alliances with Spain and the King of Sardinia in exchange for pieces of the Hapsburg Empire.