Hermeticismalso called Hermetism  is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus "thrice-greatest Hermes". The prominence that it gave to the idea of influencing or controlling nature led many scientists to look to magic and its allied arts e. Consequently, it was the practical aspects of Hermetic writings that attracted the attention of scientists.
The term is from the medieval Latin hermeticuswhich is derived from the name of the Greek god Hermes. In English, it has been attested since the 17th century, as in "Hermetic writers" e.
Mary Anne Atwood mentioned the use of the word Hermetic by Dufresnoy in The synonymous term Hermetical is also attested in the 17th century. Sir Thomas Browne in his Religio Medici of wrote: It was the opinion of Plato, and is yet of the Hermeticall Philosophers.
Hermes Trimegistus supposedly invented the process of making a glass tube airtight a process in alchemy using a secret seal. Hence, the term "completely sealed" is implied in "hermetically sealed" and the term "hermetic" is also equivalent to "occult" or hidden. These doctrines were "characterized by a resistance to the dominance of either pure rationality or doctrinal faith. These post-Christian Greek texts dwell upon the oneness and goodness of God, urge purification of the soul, and defend pagan religious practices such as the veneration of images.
Their predominant literary form is the dialogue: Hermes Trismegistus instructs a perplexed disciple upon various teachings of the hidden wisdom. After centuries of falling out of favor, Hermeticism was reintroduced to the West when, ina man named Leonardo Ermetismo riassunto yahoo dating Candia Pistoia  brought the Corpus Hermeticum to Pistoia.
He was one of many agents sent out by Pistoia's ruler, Cosimo de' Medici to scour European monasteries for lost ancient writings. InIsaac Casaubona Swiss philologistanalyzed the Greek Hermetic texts for linguistic style. Even in light of Casaubon's linguistic discovery and typical of many adherents of Hermetic philosophy in Europe during the 16th and 17th centuriesThomas Browne in his Religio Medici confidently stated: Inhowever, flaws in Casaubon's dating were discerned by Ralph Cudworth, who argued that Casaubon's allegation of forgery could only be applied to three of the seventeen treatises contained within the Corpus Hermeticum.
Moreover, Cudworth noted Casaubon's failure to acknowledge the codification of these treatises as a late formulation of a pre-existing oral tradition. According to Cudworth, the texts must be viewed as a terminus ad quem and not a terminus a quo. Lost Greek texts, and many of the surviving vulgate books, contained discussions of alchemy clothed in philosophical metaphor.
InHermetic texts were found near the Egyptian town Nag Hammadi. One of these texts had the form of a conversation between Hermes and Asclepius. A second text titled On the Ogdoad and Ennead told of the Hermetic mystery schools. It was written in the Coptic languagethe latest and final form in which the Egyptian language was written.
According to Geza VermesHermeticism was a Hellenistic mysticism contemporaneous with the Fourth Gospel, and Hermes Tresmegistos was "the Hellenized reincarnation of the Egyptian deity Thoththe source of wisdom, who was believed to deify man through knowledge gnosis.
Gilles Quispel says "It is now completely "Ermetismo riassunto yahoo dating" that there existed before and after the beginning of the Christian era in Alexandria a secret society, akin to a Masonic lodge.
The members of this group called themselves 'brethren,' were initiated through a baptism of the Spirit, greeted each other with a sacred kiss, celebrated a sacred meal and read the Hermetic writings as edifying treatises for their spiritual progress.
In Hermeticism, the ultimate reality is referred to variously as God, the All, or One. God in the "Ermetismo riassunto yahoo dating" is unitary and transcendent: Hermetism is therefore profoundly monotheistic although in a deistic and unitarian understanding of the term.
Its philosophy teaches that there is a transcendent Godor Absolute, in which we and the entire universe participate. It also subscribes to the idea that other beings, such as aeonsangels and elementalsexist within the universe. Hermeticists believe in a prisca theologiathe doctrine that a single, true theology exists, that it exists in all religions, and that it was given by God to man in antiquity.
By this account, Hermes Trismegistus was according to the fathers of the Christian church either a contemporary of Moses  or the third in a line of men named Hermes— EnochNoahand the Egyptian priest-king who is known to us as Hermes Trismegistus. The actual text of that maximas translated by Dennis W.
This principle, however, is more often used in the sense of the microcosm and the macrocosm. The microcosm is oneself, and the macrocosm is the universe. The macrocosm is as the microcosm and vice versa; within each lies the other, and through understanding one usually the microcosm a person may understand the other. Alchemy the operation of the Sun: Alchemy is not merely the changing of lead into gold.
Astrology the operation of the stars: Hermes claims that Zoroaster discovered this part of the wisdom of the whole universe, astrology, and taught it to man. Astrology has influences upon the Earth, but does not dictate our actions, and wisdom is gained when we know what these influences are and how to deal with them.
Theurgy the operation Ermetismo riassunto yahoo dating the gods: There are two different types of magic, according to Pico della Mirandola's Apologycompletely opposite of each other. The second is Theurgydivine magic reliant upon an alliance with divine spirits i.
Reincarnation is mentioned in Hermetic texts. O son, how many Ermetismo riassunto yahoo dating have we to pass through, how many bands of demons, through how many series of repetitions and cycles of the stars, before we hasten to the One alone?
Hermes explains in Book 9 of the Corpus Hermeticum that nous reason and knowledge brings forth either good or evil, depending upon whether one receives one's perceptions from God or from demons. God brings forth good, but demons bring forth evil. Among the evils brought forth by demons are: This provides evidence that Hermeticism includes a sense of morality.
However, the word "good" is used very strictly. It is restricted to references to God. Men are prevented from being good because man, having a body, is consumed by his physical nature, and is ignorant of Ermetismo riassunto yahoo dating Supreme Good.
A focus upon the material life is said to be the only thing that offends God:. As processions passing in the road cannot achieve anything themselves yet still obstruct others, so these men merely process through the universe, led by the pleasures of the body.
One must create, one must do something positive in one's life, because God is a generative power. Not creating anything leaves a person "sterile" i. A creation story is told by God to Hermes in the first book of the Corpus Hermeticum. It begins when God, by an act of will, creates the primary matter that is to constitute the cosmos. From primary matter God separates the four elements earth, air, fire, and water.
Then God orders the elements into the seven heavens often held to be the spheres of MercuryVenusMarsJupiterSaturnthe Sun, and the Moonwhich travel in circles and govern destiny.
Nous then makes the seven heavens spin, and from them spring "Ermetismo riassunto yahoo dating" creatures without speech. Earth is then separated from water, and animals other than man are brought forth. The God then created androgynous man, in God's own image, and handed over his creation. Man carefully observed the creation of nous and received from God man's authority over all creation.
Man then rose up above the spheres' paths in order to better view creation. He then showed the form of the All to Nature. Nature fell in love with the All, and man, seeing his reflection in water, fell in love with Nature and wished to dwell in it. Ermetismo riassunto yahoo dating, man became one with Nature and became a slave to its limitations, such as sex and sleep.
In this way, man became speechless having lost "the Word" and he became " double ", being mortal in body yet immortal in spiritand having authority over all creation yet subject to destiny.