The quadricuspid aortic valve QAV is a rare malformation; again isolated, sometimes associated with other affection diseases. Before the era of echocardiography, the diagnosis was made incidentally at autopsy or midst surgery of valve replacement. The cosmic use of echocardiography has allowed an early and nice diagnosis of that malformation. In countless cases, the transthoracic approach is apt for the diagnosis but, transesophageal echocardiography is a cut for the meticulous definition of the valve anatomy.
That review analyzes, after the presentation of a clinical holder, the current facts on embryogenesis, classification, diagnosis and clinical course of QAV. The quadricuspid aortic valve QAV is a very rare congenital anomaly, with a prevalence of 0. Significant valvulopathy is often toward the fifth to sixth decade.
Greater frequently isolated, it is, sometimes, associated with other congenital heart defects. The extensive use of transthoracic TTE and transesophageal echocardiography TEE and systematic con of the aorta morphology allow an accurate detection of this anomaly.
That review was inspired by a clinical case of QAV came to our attention.
Valvular heart disease diagnosis and treatment
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International records indicate that only 2. The study aim was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical profile of patients with valvular heart disease undergoing heart transplantation. Between and , a total of heart transplants was performed at the authors' institution. Twenty patients 13 men, seven women; mean age Analyses were made of the patients' clinical profile, laboratory data, echocardiographic and histopathological data, and mortality and rejection.
The mean left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF was Histological examination of the recipients' hearts showed five Univariate analysis showed that age, gender, LVEF, rheumatic activity and rejection were not associated with mortality at one year.
Among the present patient cohort, rheumatic heart disease was the leading cause of heart transplantation, and a significant proportion of these patients had reactivated myocarditis diagnosed in the histological analyses.
Thus, it appears valid to investigate the existence of rheumatic activity, especially in valvular cardiomyopathy with severe systolic dysfunction before transplantation. Directory of Open Access Journals Sweden. The source of emboli in most cases, are blood clots localized in the left atrium.
Frequency of different valvular lesions of rheumatic heart disease presenting to a tertiary care hospital.
Quadricuspid Aortic Valve: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
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Many years ago, the patient underwent surgery for peptic ulcer. He had presented with at least three episodes of hemiparesis with complete regression during follow up and, cognitive deficit, preventing him from correctly following medical prescriptions, occurred as a sequela.
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Valvular heart disease diagnosis and treatment